The liability of any or all of the the parties involved in the chain of manufacture of any product for the damage caused by that product is called product liability. The manufacturer of component parts, the assembly manufacturer, the wholesaler or retail store owner can be responsible for product liability.
Negligence is the basis for product liability claims. The concept of negligence was developed under English Law and emerged as an independent cause of action in the 18th century. Negligence is defined as conduct that falls below the standards of behavior established by law for the protection of others against unreasonable risk of harm. It involves the failure to use reasonable care and in some cases, negligence is defined by statute, known as Negligence Per Se. Some acts are considered to be inherently negligent and do not require to prove the negligence was known or intended, when for example a doctor leaves a sponge inside their patient during surgery.